Ayurveda is the rich store house of time tested and effective recipes for the treatment of several obstinate and otherwise incurable diseases. More important than these recipes are the specialized therapies which, while curing such diseases, strengthen the immune system in the body and thus help in the prevention of diseases and preservation and promotion of positive health.
Ayurveda is a well-known term to display the Hindu system of medicine which goes back to the Vedic times. When the Aryans entered the Sindhu valley, they brought their culture and medicine. The chief sources of Aryan culture ara 4 vedas. Those vedas are revealed by Brahma in the beginning of Kaliyuga having seen the sufferings of living beings introduced the Upavedas, which consists of 4 tentacles:
Among the Vedas, Rigveda is considered to be the oldest one and is the original source of Hindu Medicine. The Samaveda and Yajurveda also contains slokas pertaining to medicines but are derived from Rigveda. The Adharvaveda which was composed of the latest state gives solution to all kinds of diseases and distresses. Vedic people know many signs and symptoms of diseases, their treatment with drugs and to perform many surgical procedures with skill. The 4th Upaveda, Ayurveda resembles the Adharvaveda. Thus, the medicinal science was first given by Brahma to mankind for their survival by preventing and curing diseases. Thus Ayurveda is the first system of Hindu medicine which was revealed by Brahma to Daksha.
Actually the name Ayurveda was not given to this branch in vedic text. It was considered as a science which pervades all knowledge of life. During around 600 BC, Ayurveda become intimately associated with Adharvaveda and afterward attained the status of original Vedas.
Brahma originally composed the Ayurvedic text in 1 lakh slokas divided into 8 parts with Kaya chikitsa, Salyam as main subjects.
Brahma propagated the knowledge through Dakshaprajapathi, he wrote a book Chikitsadarsanam and illustrated the science to 2 Aswinikumaras, the physicians of God. Aswinis wrote many treaties, one of which was named as Chikitsa saratantra.
Lord Indra learnt Ayurveda from Aswinikumaras. For the considerable time, Ayurveda confined among Gods. But sometime later, mankind began to suffer from various diseases. To find the solution for this and relieve mankind from diseases, Bharatvaja and Athreya called a meeting of Rishis in the Himalayan valleys and more than 50 sages attended the meeting. At the end, they arrived at a conclusion that one of them should approach Lord Indra to obtain the knowledge from Indra. From him, Athreya learnt the science and taught the same to pupils.
But according to the School of Surgery Lord Indra actually handed over the science to Dhanwantari. When Gods and demons churned the milky oceans for nectar, many precious things came out of the ocean. Among them Dhanwantari (the physician of Holy Sage) came out with the nectar. Seeing the myseries of man he came to the earth to instruct Ayurveda. He afterwards became the king of Kasi and treated many Rishis.
Now Ayurveda is not available in its original form. Most of its contents are revealed to us by samhitas like Charaka & Susrutha originally written in about 1000 BC. These samhitas contain an abundance of materials in extremely condensed form and have traditional approach. They are theoretical and practical data except susrutha samhitha which is rich in the field of surgery.